Yesterday, December 15, 2014, I gave a twenty-miunte interview on Kelly and Company (KUNS, Denver) on the question, “Do dogs go to heaven?” I develop a theology of animals and the afterlife.
One cannot know the good and act rightly if one cannot sift evidence and construct sound arguments with a virtuous character. This is evident in the Ferguson shooting incident. As rioters destroy, pundits declare, and confusion reigns, consider these principles of epistemology (the study of knowledge):
- Truth is not determined by feeling. A true statement is one that corresponds to reality; it matches reality; it fits the facts. Your belief about X (any proposition) does not make X true or false.
- Some beliefs are false. Many of our ideas fail discern reality aright. Therefore, if we care about truth, we will test our own beliefs against reality as best we can. We need knowledge, not merely opinion. This is especially so for things of great moment, such as whether a killing was justified or unjustified.
- To have knowledge of X:
- One must believe X
- X must be true
- X must be justified
- Standards for justification (3.C) vary from discipline to discipline. Our court system is structured to weigh evidence carefully, to minimize prejudice, and to give the accused a fair hearing according to stated standards.
- Grand juries are charged to determine whether the accused should be brought to trial. They are made up of citizens from the location of the incident. In the case of Ferguson, they considered evidence of all sorts and deliberated for three months. In other words, they know more about the situation than anyone outside of this setting, except God.
- The nine Ferguson grand jury members—six white, three black—decided that Police officer Darrin Wilson should not be put on trial, since the evidence was not strong enough to warrant this. Grand juries do not decide the innocence of guilt of anyone. They, rather, determine whether a case should be brought to trial.
- In light of 1-6, it is reasonable to conclude that the police officer did not wrongfully kill Brown. Beyond that, the evidence released to the public shows that Brown tried to take the officer’s gun and was aggressively attacking the policeman.
Slogans can obscure truth. In the Ferguson case, the situation was often reduced to “a policeman shot to death an unarmed man.” This is true, but misleading, since it communicates that it is always wrong for the police to kill an unarmed man. This is not so for at least two reasons. First, the officer may not know the man is unarmed. He has to assume otherwise to protect his own life. Second, unarmed people can be lethal. They can kill with their bare hands or otherwise. Those enraged, especially if they are on illegal drugs, may continue to attack even after having been shot several times. Those who get concealed carry permits in Colorado are taught this in the required class.
This essay is not meant to address all the sad issues raised by the death of a young black man. But unless we heed basic logic, reasoning, and intellectual probity, no justice will be served.
Every drop of water becomes one with the ocean or lake or river into which it enters, thus losing its individual identity. This is not so for every human tear. Each one remains only itself, yet in communion with all others.
Here is my October 27, 2014, lecture done through The Gordon Lewis Center for Christian Thought and Culture. I am introduced by Sarah Geis, MA, who is an Affiliate Faculty member at Denver Seminary.
Lila, by Marilynne Robinson, is the strangest and one of the best pieces of fiction I have read. Mind you, I do not read much fiction, and I commonly read half of a classic novel and then stop. (I think this disorder is listed in the DSM manual). But Lila is a kind of emotional suspense novel–but never histrionic. At one point I literally turned the page quickly to find what would come next.
The work bewildered me not a few times, given its shifts in time and perspective. I did not always know when something had happened. However, the threads weave together as the book goes on. I had to finish this one.
The narrative is of a woman kidnapped (or rescued) by a pathetic and courageous woman who lives on the margins of society. She takes Lila as her own. Skipping much (to not ruin the story), Lila wonders into a town, Gilead, where she meets and marries an old widower preacher. In touching and unexpected ways, they nurture each other’s faith. Much of the plot concerns Lila’s difficulty in accepting love and trusting anyone outside of her old life on the road with tough, but good, drifters.
The novel profound perspective on life, death, risk, evil, hope, fear, and the development and shape of Christian faith–much of it coming from Lila’s thoughts. There is nothing cliche or preachy about it. Robinson has already won a Pulitzer Prize for Gilead, and is a highly respected writer. On top of all this, Calvin is referred to several times, and the story can be seen as a reflection on God’s strange providence.
This is not a light or easy read. It may take you places where you do not want to go. But no matter, take up and read.