Jesus and Logic

In On Jesus (Wadsworth, 2003), I argue that Jesus was not an irrational mystic, but was a kind of philosopher who valued reason and who had an well thought out worldview. Moreover, he engaged in rational arguments with his interlocutors. Here is a section of that book from chapter five, “Jesus’ Epistemology.” May it encourage us to highly value truth and rationality.

Noncontradiction as a Test for Truth

Jesus reasons from the Scriptures and he reasons against his critics. When presented with an apparently irresolvable dilemma concerning the resurrected state or political allegiance (Matthew 22:15-22), he finds a tertium quid that avoids either horn of the dilemma. In this, and in all his other use of argument, Jesus implicitly endorses the law of noncontradiction as a necessary test for truth. A statement and its negation cannot both be true in the same way at the same time. Jesus never accepts a proposition and its negation as both true; nor does he revel in irreconcilable paradoxes as a way to disarm rational thought and make room for faith. Jesus at no time invokes an irresolvable paradox when pressed into a logical corner—although he will often employ a paradox to give a memorable ending to a pertinent teaching. When accused of holding contradictory teachings or of opposing the Hebrew Scriptures, Jesus argues in order to resolve the apparent contradiction and vindicate his teaching.

Nevertheless, some interpreters attempt to make Jesus into a Jewish Zen-Master or guru by claiming that he employed mind-stopping contradictions. They compare several paradoxical sayings of Jesus to Zen koans. A koan is a riddle having to do with a logical impossibility; it is given to a Zen student in order to induce the student to transcend normal logical analysis and rational processes. Zen epistemology involves transcending all dualities and antitheses through various practices, such as contemplating koans and sat-zen (meditating on a blank wall for hours) in order to attain the state of “no-mind.” A famous Zen koan is, “What is the sound of one hand [clapping]?” This question has no resolution, because one hand cannot clap (in any standard sense of clapping). 

Jesus utters statements that are prima facie similar to koans, such as, “But many who are first will be last, and many who are last will be first (Matthew 19:30). But Jesus’ use of paradox is pedagogical, not illogical. It has nothing to do with Zen or any other kind of mystical practice that abandons rational categories as a means to enlightenment. Jesus’ paradoxes are given not as epigrams, but as memorable conclusions to his teachings. They have an intellectual context and communicate propositional knowledge. The statement, “Many who are first will be last, and many who are last will be first” is not affirming that “first equals last” (a contradiction), as would a Zen koan. Rather,  Jesus is speaking of the final reward of those who give up much in this life to follow him. This reward more than compensates for the losses they experience. Therefore, many who are “first” (or fortunate in this life) will be “last” (or unfortunate in the next), and vice versa. Jesus’ phrasing is paradoxical, and, therefore, pedagogically provocative; but it has a determinative and intelligible meaning (see Matthew 19:16-30).

One thought on “Jesus and Logic

  1. I never see Jesus as a mere philosopher. He’s the Son of God as he himself says in John 10 and that confers a unique status of being both Son of God and Son of Man upon him. He pre-existed creation, read the hearts and minds of people and already knew their personal histories as he showed when speaking to the woman at the well. He’s omniscient like his Abba so he doesn’t have to reason like people do. He already knows but he did come to set a pattern for us who only have a measure of the Spirit while he has a full measure of it. A pattern to imitate and live up to.

    In certain circles of Christianity human philosophical reasoning has always been in vogue. This happens periodically throughout Christianity where people seek to validate and advocate their own human perspective of God instead of spending great time in the scriptures learning God’s perspective. It has turned theology on it’s head and now we have traditional mainstream religion promoting a Latinized/Roman perspective of Christianity that is at variance with God’s Hebrew perspective. They’ve also managed to come close to putting aside the biblical doctrine of predestination in favor of Greek philosophy’s free will doctrine

    We have a dual nature as believers and if we don’t intently hang on every scripture we have a tendency to take intellectual shortcuts with our natural minds where we start to substitute man’s reasonings for God’s explanations. Two good books showing some of the doctrinal misconstructions that occurred due to thinking along unbiblical lines are Creation’s Jubilee by Dr. Stephen E Jones and The Sacred Secrets of the Sovereignty of God by James Walter Bruggemann.

    Always remember “Man does not live by bread alone but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.”. The word is our spiritual food so read it alot. Doesn’t God use it to build the mind of Christ in His devoted followers?

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